国家重点基础研究发展计划项目（2009CB421401）, 公益性行业（气象）科研专项（GYHY200906018), 中国科学院知识创新工程项目 IAP07415, 中国科学院大气物理研究所博士留所启动项目和国家自然科学基金资助项目40705039
根据1951～2007年中国160站月降水量资料和Niño 3区月平均海表温度资料， 采用滑动相关分析和合成分析等方法， 探讨了中国夏季降水与前期冬季Niño 3区海温年际变化关系的不稳定性问题。结果表明， 它们之间年际变化关系的长期变化具有明显的地域性， 东北和西北地区相关的不稳定性比东部地区大， 与预测经验吻合。同时也有明显的阶段性， 1951～2007年据滑动相关系数序列可分成1962～1977年、 1978～1992年和1993～至今三个时期。各个时期平均约为16年。它们从一个阶段向另一个阶段过渡的时间很短， 是以气候跃变的形式来完成的。近50多年来在1960年代初、 1970年代末和1980年代末1990年代初共发生了3次明显的跃变过程。跃变前后某些地区滑动相关系数的符号或强度都有显著的差异。研究还表明， 不同时期， 尽管同样是El Niño事件， 它们对中国夏季降水的影响有不同的表现。1962～1977年时间的相关模型有两条多雨带： 一条位于华北、 东北平原和内蒙古东部一线， 另一条在长江中游地区。秦岭[CD*2]大巴山区和江淮流域降水偏少。1978～1992年时期只有一条多雨带， 位于秦岭－大巴山区、 长江中游和下游一线。黄淮地区及华北至东北南部降水偏少。目前我们所处的时期 （1993～至今） 雨带分布与1962～1977年时期的模型基本相似， 也为南、 北两条多雨带， 但其北支雨带南移， 位于从川渝地区经黄淮地区、 黄河下游至东北平原一带， 湖北北部和长江下游降水偏少。呈现北方降水偏多、 南方降水相对偏少的分布。所以， 利用ENSO事件做我国汛期降水预报， 不能只考虑其平均情况的年际变化关系， 还应注意它们之间关系的不稳定性问题。
Based on the monthly rainfall of 160 stations over China and the sea surface temperature data in the Niño 3 region, the instability of interannual relationship between summer rainfall in China (SRC) and pre-winter sea surface temperature (WSST) in the Niño 3 region is studied by using sliding correlation, composition etc. It shows that the long-term variation of interannual relationship between SRC and WSST in the Niño3 region has obvious regionality and is more instable in northeastern and northwestern China than in eastern China. At the same time, it has a significant stage characteristic. The period from 1951－2007 can be separated into 1962－1977, 1978－1992, 1993 to present, according to the sliding correlation coefficients. Each stage has about sixteen years in length. Every turning from one stage to another is very short and is characterized by abrupt change. There are three obvious abrupt changes in the last 50 years, such as in the early 1960s, in the late 1970s, and in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Before and after the abrupt change, the correlation sign and intensity have obvious differences in some regions. It also shows that the influences of El Niño events in different stages have different features. There are two rainbelts during 1962－1977: one was located in North China, Northeast China Plain, and eastern Inner Mongolia, and the other was located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River; there was less rainfall in the Qingling-Daba Mountains and the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valley. During 1978－1992, there was only one rainbelt located in the Qinling-Daba Mountains area and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there was less rainfall in the Yellow River and Huaihe River valley, and North China to the south of Northeast China. And in the present stage (1993 to present), the spatial distribution of rainbelts is similar to that during 1962－1977, there are also two rainbelts located in southern China and northern China respectively. But the north rainbelt moves southward to the Sichuan Province, Chongqing, the Yellow River and Huaihe River valley, the lower reaches of the Yellow River, and Northeast China Plain; there is less rainfall in northern Hubei Province and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River; the feature of rainfall distribution is that there is more rainfall in northern China while less rainfall in southern China. So, not only the mean interannual relations between SRC and SST in the Niño 3 region but also their instabilities must be considered in the forecasting of flood season precipitation by using ENSO events.
宗海锋,陈烈庭,张庆云. ENSO与中国夏季降水年际变化关系的不稳定性特征.大气科学,2010,34(1):184~192 Zong Haifeng, Chen Lieting, Zhang Qingyun. The Instability of the Interannual Relationship between ENSO and the Summer Rainfall in China. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese),2010,34(1):184~192复制