本文利用WRF（Weather Research and Forecasting）模式耦合Noah陆面过程模式，对比研究了使用不同精度陆面资料：WRF默认陆面资料、中国1 km分辨率数字高程模型数据集、2006年MODIS（MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer）土地利用和植被覆盖度资料，WRF模式对兰州地区冬季气象场模拟结果的差异。结果表明，近地面气温对陆面资料的精度非常敏感，而风场对陆面资料的精度不敏感，WRF模式对气温的模拟效果好于对风场模拟。采用高精度且时效性好的陆面资料后，WRF模拟的近地面气温准确率提高了15.8%，模拟的夜间气温改进幅度较白天大。陆面资料可影响整个边界层温度场分布，准确的陆面资料对提高WRF模式模拟近地面乃至整个边界层气象场至关重要。尽管风速模拟误差较大，但总体上WRF模式能较准确地模拟出研究区的风场演变特征。使用新的陆面资料后WRF模拟的风速误差略有减小，风向误差略有增加。干旱半干旱区冬季数值模拟需要注意土壤湿度初值和模式初始积分时刻对模拟结果的影响。
By using the 1-km resolution digital elevation model dataset of China and the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use and vegetation fraction data recorded in 2006, this study assesses the impact of land surface information on the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the river valley city of Lanzhou in winter. Results indicated that the near surface temperature was very sensitive to the land surface data resolution, and the near surface wind field was not sensitive to the land surface data resolution. The WRF model reproduced the near surface temperature better than the wind field, and its performance on near surface temperature was clearly affected by land surface information. The hit rate of the WRF simulated near surface temperature to observations increased by 15.8% when model default land surface data were replaced by MODIS derivations and the 1-km resolution digital elevation model dataset of China; the improvement measured in the night was more obvious than that measured in the day. The impact of surface conditions on temperature extended throughout the boundary layer, which indicates that accurate land surface information is vital for improving near surface and boundary layer simulation of the WRF model. Moreover, the WRF model accurately simulated the evolution of the wind field. The error of WRF modeled wind speed slightly decreased and the error of WRF modeled wind direction slightly increased with updated land surface information. The impact of the initial values of soil moisture and initial integration time on the model's performance is more obvious noticed in winter in arid and semi-arid regions.
何建军,余晔,刘娜,赵素平,陈晋北.复杂地形区陆面资料对WRF模式模拟性能的影响.大气科学,2014,38(3):484~498 HE Jianjun, YU Ye, LIU Na, ZHAO Suping, CHEN Jinbei. Impact of Land Surface Information on WRF’s Performance in Complex Terrain Area. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese),2014,38(3):484~498复制