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CN 11-1768/O4

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六盘山地区一次低槽低涡云系结构及降水机制的数值模拟研究
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1.中国气象局云雾物理环境重点实验室,中国气象科学研究院;2.中国气象局云雾物理环境重点实验室;3.宁夏气象防灾减灾重点实验室

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国家自然科学基金


A Numerical Study on Cloud Structure and Precipitation Mechanism of Low-Trough Low-Vortex Weather Process over the Liupan Mountain Area
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Affiliation:

1.Key Laboratory for Cloud Physics of China Meteorological Administration,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences;2.Ningxia Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster Prevention and Reduction

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    摘要:

    六盘山是西北重要的水源涵养林基地,干旱少雨制约了该地区农业和经济发展。作为该地区人工增雨技术研究的基础,本文利用WRF模式对2018年08月21日发生在宁夏南部六盘山区的一次降水天气过程进行了数值模拟。根据模拟结果结合实测资料,分析了造成此次强降水过程的有利环流形势场,重点讨论了山区降水云系的微物理结构以及降水形成机制。结果表明:降水是在高空槽配合低涡的动力场作用下形成的,受六盘山地形的阻挡作用,低层低涡系统移速落后于高空槽;垂直方向上云系呈现“催化-供给”的分层结构,但在云系不同部位,各层水凝物配置不同,导致冷暖云过程对降水的贡献差异;六盘山东部迎风坡降水强于西坡。霰粒子融化和云水碰并是地面降水的主要来源;碰冻过冷雨水是霰增长的主要过程。迎风坡云水层深厚,含水量高,一方面促进过冷层中霰粒子的碰冻增长过程,一方面为雨滴碰并增长提供充沛的云水条件,即同时增强了冷暖云降水过程。地形对云的发展和降水的形成有明显影响,当降低地形高度后,云水量减少,暖云过程减弱,同时也影响了霰粒子的增长过程。

    Abstract:

    Liupan Mountain area is water conservation forest base in the northwestern of China, but the drought and lack of rain restricted the agricultural and economic development of this region. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a precipitation process occurred in Liupan Mountain area in southern Ningxia on August 21, 2018 was simulated as the basis of further research on artificial precipitation enhancement technology in this area. Based on observational data, the favorable circulation situation was analyzed, the microphysical structure and precipitation formation mechanism in the precipitation cloud system were discussed. The results show that the weather system of this precipitation process developed in the dynamic field of aloft trough associated with low vortex, and the low vortex was at the slower moving compared with the aloft trough because of the blocking effect of the Liupan Mountain terrain. The vertical structure of cloud showed a remarkable “seeding-feeding” stratified structure,but the vertical microstructure was different in different parts of the cloud system,resulting in the difference of contribution of cold and warm cloud processes to precipitation. Besides, the precipitation on the east windward side of Liupan Mountain was stronger than that in the west. Rain water was produced mainly by melting of graupel and collection of cloud water by rain. The accretion of supercooled rain was the main process of graupel growth. Layer of cloud water on the windward slope was deep with high water content. It promoted the process of accretion of rain by graupel in the supercooled layer, and provided abundant cloud water for the process of coalescence growth of raindrops, which enhanced both cold and warm cloud precipitation process. The terrain had an impact on the development of clouds and the formation of precipitation, where the cloud water decreased the warm cloud process weakened with the terrain height lowering, which also affected the growth process of the graupel.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-10-10
  • 最后修改日期:2020-01-16
  • 录用日期:2020-05-06
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