利用2008～2016年国家气象信息中心提供的0.1°分辨率的中国地面与CMORPH融合逐小时降水产品，分析了重庆地区的降水时空分布特征，尤其是小时强降水的时空分布特征。结果表明：（1）年均降水量总体呈西低东高分布，大值中心位于重庆东北和东南部，且存在一定的季节性差异，特别是夏季，西部降水明显增强，总降水呈两高（西部、东部）一低（中部）的分布；降水频次、降水强度与地形的相关性较高，海拔高度较高的山区（海拔高度>1000 m）降水频次多大于盆地和丘陵区（海拔高度<1000 m），降水强度与之相反，且小时强降水多发生在迎风坡前侧的过渡区域，说明高海拔区域易出现降水，但降水强度不强，而地形抬升则是触发强降水的重要原因，导致山前降水明显大于山峰。（2）重庆地区降水主要集中在5～9月，降水量、降水强度和小时强降水频次均呈单峰型分布，峰值出现在6～7月，降水频次呈双峰型分布，一个峰值出现在5～6月，另一个峰值出现在10月，7～8月为低频期，与副高控制下的连晴高温天气有关。（3）重庆地区降水存在明显的日变化特征，降水以夜雨为主，且降水峰值出现时间表现为向东延迟的特征，重庆西部日峰值出现在凌晨02：00（北京时，下同），中部出现在清晨05：00，东北部出现在早上08：00。从不同季节来看，春季、秋季和冬季降水日变化呈单峰型分布，主要集中在清晨，而夏季受午后局地对流性天气的影响，在下午17：00左右存在一个次峰值。（4）强降水的主要集中在夏季，在空间上存在三个大值中心，受西南涡及地形的相互作用，夏季在缙云山以西的盆地区域，小时强降水频次明显较高。
The spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of precipitation, especially hourly heavy precipitation, in Chongqing area were analyzed. Satellite precipitation products from 2008 to 2016, with a resolution of 0.1o, provided by the National Meteorological Information Center were used. Results showed that: (1) The annual mean precipitation increased from the western to the eastern part of Chongqing, with large precipitation centers that varied seasonally, located in the northeast and southeast of Chongqing. Precipitation in western Chongqing significantly increased, particularly in summer. In addition, total precipitation displayed large values over western and eastern Chongqing and low values over central Chongqing; the distribution of precipitation frequency and intensity were highly correlated with topography. Precipitation over areas 1000 m above MSL was heavier than that over the basin and hilly areas below 1000 m in altitude. Precipitation intensity tended to show the opposite distribution. Orographic uplift was an important trigger for heavy precipitation, leading to more precipitation in the transition zone along the windward side of the mountains than in the intermountain zone. (2) Precipitation in Chongqing was mainly concentrated in May-September. Precipitation amount, intensity, and hourly heavy precipitation frequency distributions all showed a single, June-July peak. Precipitation frequency displayed a double peak, with one in May-June and the other in October. However, a minimum of precipitation frequency occurred mainly in July-August, corresponding with fair and warm days the subtropical high. (3) Precipitation in Chongqing showed a clear diurnal variation. Precipitation was mainly nocturnal rain, with diurnal peaks that displayed an eastward delay. The diurnal peaks tended to occur at 0200 BJT (Beijing time) in west Chongqing, at 0500 BJT in central Chongqing, and at 0800 BJT in east Chongqing. Precipitation over Chongqing in spring, autumn, and winter showed a single diurnal peak in the early morning. In summer, there was a sub-peak at about 1700 BJT due to local afternoon convection. (4) Heavy precipitation was mainly concentrated in summer. There were three large value centers in space. Due to interaction with the southwest vortex and topography, heavy hourly precipitation was clearly more frequent in the basin area west of Jinyun Mountain in summer.
方德贤,董新宁,邓承之,吴钲,海川,高松,黄安宁.2008～2016年重庆地区降水时空分布特征.大气科学,2020,44(2):327~340 FANG Dexian, DONG Xinning, DENG Chengzhi, WU Zheng, HAI Chuan, GAO Song,HUANG Anning.Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Precipitation in Chongqing during 2008–2016.Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese),2020,44(2):327~340复制