双月刊

ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

寿县不同强度雾的微物理特征及其与能见度的关系
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1.安徽省气象科学研究所/安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室;2.南京信息工程大学大气物理与大气环境重点实验室;3.寿县国家气候观象台/中国气象局淮河流域典型农田生态气象野外科学试验基地

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国家自然科学基金


Microphysical Characteristics of Fog with Different Intensities and Their Relationship with Visibility in Shouxian County
Author:
Affiliation:

1.Anhui Institute of Meteorological Sciences/Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences and Satellite Remote Sensing of Anhui Province;2.Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics and Environment,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology;3.Shouxian National Climatology Observatory/Huaihe River Basin Typical Agro-Ecosystems Meteorology Field Experiment Station of CMA

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    摘要:

    雾对交通运输有不利影响,尤其是强浓雾。本文利用2019年1月上中旬在寿县国家气候观象台应用FM-100型雾滴谱仪测量的雾滴谱数据和常规气象观测数据,分析了不同强度雾的微物理特征,以及能见度与液水含量、雾滴数浓度、相对湿度之间的关系,在此基础上建立了能见度参数化方案。结果表明:(1)随着雾的强度增强,雾中含水量显著增大,大雾、浓雾和强浓雾阶段液水含量平均值分别为0.003、0.01和0.09 g·m-3;当含水量大于0.02g·m-3,出现强浓雾的比例高达95%。(2)雾滴数浓度、雾滴尺度随着雾强度增强而增大,从大雾到浓雾,雾滴数浓度显著增加(67%),而从浓雾到强浓雾,雾滴尺度显著增大,平均直径、平均有效半径分别增加62%、135%;当雾滴有效半径大于4.7μm,出现强浓雾的比例高达95%。(3)强浓雾、浓雾、大雾雾滴数浓度谱分布均为双峰结构,谱分布整体偏向小粒子一端,强浓雾谱型为Deirmendjian分布,浓雾、大雾均为Junge分布;强浓雾的雾水质量浓度谱呈现多峰特征,最大峰值出现在21.5μm处,浓雾雾水质量浓度谱为双峰分布,大雾为单峰型,最大峰值均出现在5μm处。(4)含水量、数浓度与能见度均呈反相关关系,含水量对能见度的影响最为显著;分别采用全样本和分段方式建立了四种能见度参数化方案,评估检验结果表明,基于含水量的能见度分段拟合方案对能见度的估算效果最好。

    Abstract:

    Fog has adverse effects on transportation, especially extremely dense fog. In this paper, the fog droplet spectrum data measured by FM-100 fog drop spectrometer at Shouxian National Climate Observatory in January 2019, together with the contemporary conventional meteorological observation data, were used to investigate the microphysical characteristics of fog with different intensities. Based on the analysis of the relationships between visibility (V) and liquid water content (L), number concentration (N) of fog droplets and relative humidity (RH), various visibility parameterization schemes were established. The results show that: (1) With the increase of fog intensity, the water content in fog increased significantly, with average values of 0.003, 0.01 and 0.09 g·m-3 during the periods of fog, dense fog and extremely dense fog, respectively. When the L was greater than 0.02 g·m-3, the proportion of extremely dense fog reached 95%. (2) The N and droplet size increased with the increase of fog intensity. From fog to dense fog, the N increased significantly (increased by 67%), while from dense fog to extremely dense fog, the droplet size increased significantly, and the average diameter (D) and effective radius (Re) increased by 62% and 135% respectively. When the Re was greater than 4.7 μm, the proportion of extremely dense fog reached 95%. (3) All the spectra distributions of droplet number concentration for fog, dense fog and extremely dense fog were bimodal structure, with the major peaks close to the end of small particles. The spectrum type of extremely dense fog was Deirmendjian distribution; while it was Junge distribution for dense fog and fog. As for fog water mass concentration spectrum it was characterized by multi peaks for extremely dense fog with the maximum peak appeared at 21.5 μm, bimodal distribution and single peak type for dense fog and fog respectively, with the maximum peak at 5 μm. (4) Both L and N were inversely correlated with visibility, and L showed the highest correlation coefficient with visibility. Four kinds of visibility parameterization schemes were established by using full sample and segmented method respectively, and the test results indicated that the visibility subsection fitting scheme based on L was the best.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-11-19
  • 最后修改日期:2021-03-12
  • 录用日期:2021-03-26
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