双月刊

ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

祁连山春季一次层状云降水的雨滴谱分布及地形影响特征
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1.甘肃省人工影响天气办公室;2.中国气象局云雾物理与环境重点实验室;3.兰州大学资源环境学院

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A case study of raindrop size distribution characteristics and orographic impact in spring stratiform precipitation over the Qilian Mountains
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Affiliation:

1.Key Laboratory for Cloud Physics, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences;2.Gansu Weather Modification Office

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    摘要:

    祁连山是青藏高原东北部重要的生态屏障和冰川与水源涵养生态功能区,是黄河流域重要水源产流地,但针对该地区的云和降水过程研究很少。本文利用祁连山地区11个Parsivel2雨滴谱仪的观测数据,研究了祁连山地区春季一次层状云降水过程的雨滴谱分布及地形影响特征。此次降水过程主要受短波槽影响,降水时空差异较大。雨滴谱观测数据表明,此次降水过程的雨滴等效直径(D_m)较小,雨滴谱数浓度(N_T)与D_m随海拔高度升高分别呈增加和减小的趋势,低海拔站点〖logN〗_w和D_m分布有着明显的层状云降水特征,而整个祁连山地区在同样D_m下有着更高的N_w。低海拔站点由于碰并和小雨滴的蒸发,因此有着更少的小雨滴(<1 mm)和更多的大雨滴,而高海拔站点由于距离云底较近或位于云内,云滴尺度小且浓度大,D_m随R增大变化趋势不明显。Γ分布拟合的各个站点的参数明显偏大,M-P分布的N_0明显高于其他地区,Γ分布对于小雨滴的拟合效果较好,Γ分布和M-P分布在大粒子端分别有着明显的低估和高估。受海拔高度与云底的相对位置和地形的影响,祁连山地区的雨滴谱分布拟合结果、μ-Λ关系、Z-R关系等都与其他地区或研究有着较大的区别。

    Abstract:

    Locating in the northeastern of the Tibetan Plateau, Qilian Mountains is an important ecological protective screen and conservation zone, as well as a key water source for Yellow River basin. However, studies on cloud and precipitation in this region are seriously lacking. Using the observations of 11 Parsivel2 disdrometers in Qilian Mountains, this paper studied the raindrop size distribution characteristics and orographic impact in a spring stratiform precipitation case over the Qilian Mountains. This precipitation process was initiated under the influence of a short wave trough and had significantly temporal and spatial variation. The disdrometer observations show that the mass equivalent diameter (D_m) was small, and the total number concentration of the raindrops (N_T) and D_m would increase and decrease as the elevation become higher. The relationship between 〖logN〗_w and D_m had featured stratiform precipitation characteristics, and in the same D_m there was higher N_w in Qilian Mountains. For lower elevation sites, there were less smaller raindrops (<1 mm) and more larger raindrops because of the evaporation of small raindrops and the coalescence. Because the sites of higher elevation were close to the cloud base or in the cloud, the size scale of raindrops became smaller and D_m varied little with rain rate (R). The parameter values of the Γ distribution fit results were larger than other regions, so as to the N_0 of M-P distribution fit results. Γ distribution fits better for smaller raindrops, however, the Γ distribution and M-P distribution have underestimate and overestimate for larger raindrops, respectively. Influenced by the topography and the relative position between observational site and cloud base, the fit results of raindrop size distribution, the μ-Λ relationship, and the Z-R relationship all showed quite different characteristics with other regions or researches.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-11-20
  • 最后修改日期:2021-03-23
  • 录用日期:2021-05-10
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