双月刊

ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

冰雹云卫星早期识别与自动预警
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1.陕西省气象科学研究所;2.陕西省人工影响天气办公室

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Research on Early Identification and Automatic Warningof Hail Clouds by Satellite
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Affiliation:

Meteorological Institute of Shaanxi Province

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    摘要:

    利用陕西、山东、贵州和新疆等地近十年日间降雹记录和对应极轨卫星数据,采用卫星云微物理反演技术,定量分析冰雹云微物理特征,比较不同地区间差异,并利用FY-4A静止卫星定量分析一次冰雹过程云微物理特征演变,探讨冰雹云卫星识别预警应用潜力。结果表明:(1)陕西、山东等地冰雹云微物理特征具有一致性,卫星早期识别指标为:晶化温度(Tg)较冷,均值为-33℃;全部冰晶化时Tg 对应的云粒子有效半径re(表征为re-g)未饱和(<40mm),均值37.2mm,且re-g越小冰雹云越强;云顶呈现re随高度减小带。(2)各地冰雹云早期识别指标在数值上存在一定差异,实际应用时应针对各地进行相应调整。(3)在静止卫星上,冰雹云微物理特征与极轨卫星相一致,将早期识别指标应用于FY-4A静止卫星,跟踪云团发展演变,实现自动预警。(4)经过4次降雹过程中应用,FY-4A卫星自动预警与实况吻合22次,漏报2次,自动预警平均提前约2小时。

    Abstract:

    Meteorological satellites have provided useful information for improving weather forecasting, environmental monitoring and short-term climate prediction. In the field of weather forecast, it provides a more powerful means for the forecast of typhoon, rainstorm, hail, sandstorm and other severe weather. In this study, the microstructure of hail clouds were analysed by satellite observation data based on nearly a decade of hail events record of Shaanxi, Shandong, Guizhou, and Xinjiang. The comparison between the hail cloud and deep convective precipitation cloud characteristics which retrieved by polar orbit satellites shown different cloud properties such as cloud top temperature/effective radius, cloud glaciation temperatures. Based on the distinct cloud properties between hail clouds and convective clouds, we summarized the characteristics and further apply them on the FY-4A geo-stationary satellite which captures the life cycle of hail which happened on August 16, 2019, Shandong area. The results shown satellite has the potential to capture a hail cloud during its developing stage and use it as an application of early warning. The hail cloud shows the following characteristics: (1) There are significant differences in cloud physical characteristics between hail clouds and deep convective precipitation clouds. The cloud microphysical characteristics of hail clouds observed by satellites are shown in three aspects: Tg is cooler, with an average value of -33℃. The hail cloud reaches glaciation temperature with smaller effective radius (<40mm) with an average of 37.2?m when the clouds are fully glaciated. It also shows the smaller the re-g was, the stronger the hail cloud was. Additionally, hail clouds tops often have a reduction zone of re with increasing height. (2) All the studied areas have consistent cloud properties such as lower Tg, smaller re-g and decreased re at in comparison to adjacent convective clouds. However, it still showed regional variabilities which indicates we should establish different indicators for identifying hail clouds for early warming purpose. (3) The case study of FY-4A geo-stationary satellite shows geostationary satellite can track the evolution of hail clouds. By tracking the hail cloud, we found the geostationary satellite has a response consistent with that of the polar orbit satellite, providing a method for monitoring and early warning service of hail weather. The geostationary satellite can be used to track the development and evolution of the cloud cluster, at any time when the satellite detects strong hail signal because of the high time resolution. Combining satellite early warning with radar observation, the location of hail occurrence can be determined precisely. (4) Combining the indicators summarized by polar orbit satellites with FY-4 to track hail cloud evolution. Four hail storms occurred in Shaanxi and Shandong were applied for early warnings. Ground observations reported 22 hail events in the two regions, of which the satellite successfully warned 20 times in advance and missed two times. The average early warning time is about two hours before the hail disaster.

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历史
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-21
  • 最后修改日期:2021-04-20
  • 录用日期:2021-07-08
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