双月刊

ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

中国东南地区热带气旋大风及其伴随天气的统计特征
作者:
作者单位:

1.中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室;2.北京玖天气象科技有限公司

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基金项目:

国家自然科学基金项目41930972,51778617,“科技助力经济2020”重点专项KJZLJJ 202006


Statistical characteristics of tropical cyclone gale and its accompanying weather in southeast China
Author:
Affiliation:

State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences

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    摘要:

    利用2010-2016年中国地面站重要天气报文、中国气象局(CMA)热带气旋最佳路径数据集以及地面站逐小时降水资料,对热带气旋(TC)影响下我国东南地区地面大风及其伴随天气特征进行统计分析,结果表明:1)该区域TC大风主要沿海岸线分布,至内陆频次递减;TC大风多以东北风向为主,登陆前大风站点居多,12级以上的强风速基本分布在距TC中心300km范围内;2)强热带风暴(STS)和台风(TY)强度TC引起的站点大风最多,但16级以上大风主要出现在强台风(STY)和超强台风(Super TY)强度等级。慢速TC引起的站点大风主要出现其移向右前侧,快速主要出现在其右后侧。TC大风中向岸风均值略大于离岸风,其中12级以上风速向岸风站点多于离岸风,但16级以上大风则是离岸风站点明显多于向岸风;3)约89.8%的TC大风伴随降水,分布于TC中心附近,东北风为主,峰值出现在8月。约10.2%的TC大风无降水,主要分布在TC外围,北风和东南风为主,风速较弱,多出现于5月和12月。12级以上TC大风几乎均伴随着降水,而无降水TC大风风速达12级以上样本很少;4)约23.8%的TC大风伴随强对流天气,以东北风为主,平均风速大于非强对流TC大风。TC大风伴随的强对流天气包括短时强降水和雷暴,以短时强降水居多(约占该类TC大风的79.5%),主要分布在TC中心附近东北象限,而雷暴TC大风则主要出现在TC外围(约占该类TC大风的28.0%),东南象限相对较少;5)同时出现短时强降水和雷暴的TC大风仅占强对流TC大风的7.5%,TC大风的1.8%,说明TC大风伴随的短时强降水中不常见雷暴现象。

    Abstract:

    Using important weather reports from Chinese surface-based observing stations,the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) tropical cyclone best track data and hour-by-hour precipitation data from 2010 to 2016, statistical analysis of surface gales and its accompanying weather in southeastern China under the influence of tropical cyclones (TCs) was conducted, and the results show that: 1) TC gale in this region is mainly distributed along the coastline, with decreasing frequency from coast to inland; TC gale is dominated by the northeast wind direction, and the gale is mostly before the typhoon landfall. The strong wind speed of magnitude 12 and above are distributed within 300km of the TC center; 2) TCs of TS and TY intensity caused the most gale, but the strong wind speed of magnitude 16 and above are mainly found in the STY and Super TY intensity classes. Gale caused by slow TC mainly appears its shift to the right front side, and fast mainly appears its right rear side. The mean onshore wind speed of TC gale are slightly larger than the offshore wind speed, although the station frequency of onshore wind is more than that of offshore wind when the wind speed between level 12 and level 16,when the wind speed above level 16,offshore wind is much more than that of onshore wind ; 3) TC gale accompanied by precipitation accounts for about 89.8% of the total number of TC gale, distributed near the center of TC, with predominantly northeasterly winds and peak frequency occurring in August.TC gale without precipitation accounts for about 10.2%, mainly distributed in the periphery of the TC, with northerly and southeasterly winds predominantly with weak wind speed, mostly in May and December.TC gales with wind speed above level 12 are almost always accompanied by precipitation, while there are few samples of TC gales with wind speed above 12 without precipitation; 4) Accompanied by strong convective weather TC gale accounts for about 23.8% of the total TC gale, with northeasterly winds dominating, the average wind speed is greater than the non-strong convective TC gale; Strong convective weather including short-term heavy precipitation and thunderstorms, with the majority of short-term heavy precipitation (about 79.5% of this type of TC gale), mainly distributed in the northeast quadrant near the TC center, while thunderstorm TC gale mainly appears in the periphery of TC (about 28.0% of this type of TC gale), of which there are relatively few in the southeast quadrant. 5) TC gale with both short-time heavy precipitation and thunderstorms accounts for only 1.8% of the total TC gale and 7.5% of strong convective TC gale, indicating that thunderstorms were not common in TC gale with short-time heavy precipitation.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-07-26
  • 最后修改日期:2021-10-25
  • 录用日期:2021-11-23
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-01-14
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