This article reviews and summarizes the research progress of atmospheric equation of vertical motion, as it plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of weather systems (especially of the small and medium-scale systems). Conservation of mass, the vertical motion can be calculated by the integration of continuity equation, but this algorithm requires accurate calculation of divergence, which is difficult to implement. The adiabatic method to calculate vertical motion is not accurate either because the based assumption of adiabatic internal changes in atmosphere does not agree to the thermal variations in real atmosphere. The diagnosis of vertical motion is related to the atmospheric scales, while the large-scale system is dominated by vortex motion and meets the quasi-horizontal motion, not to mention the little consideration of buoyancy as well as wind shear effect. For that reason, the vertical motion equation which takes account of the first law of thermodynamics, the atmospheric state equation, hydrostatic equilibrium and quasi-geostrophic condition is preferably applied in large-scale motion. The equation of vertical motion is more complicated in a meso-scale system due to the equally importance between the convergent or divergent motion as well as the rotational motion. Likewise, the vertical motion cannot be ignored. But the forcing term is still composed by the vorticity advection variation with height and the Laplace of temperature advection, thus it essentially has little distinction with the ω equation in a large-scale system. Convergent and divergent motion are predominant in a strong small-scale storm motion, with the buoyancy and wind shear playing the leading role, and the equation of vertical motion is much more complicated. However, the vertical motion forced by the background field still exists since none of the strong small-scale convective systems can occur in its isolation from the large or medium-scale background field. Thus the complete vertical motion should consider the vertical velocity generated by the adjustment of weather systems with different scales, namely, the combination of the vertical motion equations should be conducted for the calculation. The new equation of vertical motion with multiple effects can make the diagnostic analysis on the vertical velocity more precise in a strong convective system with small scale.