双月刊

ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

新疆塔里木盆地2021“7.19”暴雨水汽特征的初步分析
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新疆维吾尔自治区气象台

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第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0102)和2020年度国家自然科学基金重点项目(42030612)


Preliminary Analysis of the Water Vapor Characteristics of the "July 19" Storm in 2021 in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang
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    摘要:

    新疆塔里木盆地是世界著名干旱区,年均降水量不足100 mm,2021年 7月19日前后盆地出现罕见暴雨过程,最大累积雨量和日雨量为107.3 mm和78.5 mm(均达新疆大暴雨量级),通过分析此次暴雨水汽特征得出以下结论:(1)首次提出南亚高压“匀双体”概念,100 hPa南亚高压“西高东低”转“匀双体”过程中,500 hPa伊朗高压与高原反气旋、中亚低压与印度低压以及高原涡共同架构了“两高夹一低”环流形势;(2)揭示了在伊朗高压稳定反气旋环流下,阿拉伯海与孟加拉湾北部洋面的水汽进入盆地的大尺度环流及物理机制。阐明盆地暴雨水汽主源地为地中海及以西洋面、中亚地区、阿拉伯海和孟加拉湾,水汽输送有西方、东转西、西南+南方3条路径与轨迹,指出伊朗高压南侧东风和中亚地区西风在“东转西”水汽输送中具有关键作用,阿拉伯海和孟加拉湾的东风北上后与西风带汇合形成的水汽输送带是此次暴雨发生的重要条件。(3)水汽由西、南、东3个边界输入,东边界水汽收入主要源于低层东风,西和南2个边界水汽收入源于中高层3条路径,“西南+南方”路径水汽输送致使南边界水汽输入贡献明显大于西边界。塔里木盆地暴雨既要重视中亚低压,更要关注能否出现中亚低压与印度低压、高原涡共存并影响的大气环流场。

    Abstract:

    The Tarim Basin in Xinjiang is a world-renowned arid area with an average annual precipitation of less than 100 mm. A rare rainstorm occurs in the basin around July 19, 2021. The maximum cumulative rainfall and daily rainfall are 107.3 mm and 78.5 mm (both up to the magnitude of Xinjiang’s heavy rainstorm). , the following conclusions are drawn by analyzing the characteristics of the storm water vapor. For the first time, the concept of the "uniform twin" of the South Asian High was proposed. During the transition of the 100 hPa South Asian High from the "high in the west to the low in the East", the 500 hPa Iranian high and the plateau anticyclone, the Central Asian low and the Indian low, and the plateau vortex were jointly structured. "Two highs and one low" circulation situation; reveals the large-scale circulation and physical mechanism of the water vapor from the Arabian Sea and the northern Bay of Bengal entering the basin under the stable anticyclonic circulation of Iran under high pressure. Clarify that the main sources of storm water vapor in the basin are the Mediterranean Sea and the western ocean, Central Asia, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The water vapor transport has three paths and trajectories: west, east to west, southwest + south, and pointed out that the easterly wind on the south side of Iranian high pressure and Central Asia Regional westerly winds play a key role in the "east-to-west" water vapor transport. The easterly winds in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal merge with the west wind belt to form a water vapor conveyor belt that is an important condition for the occurrence of this heavy rain. Water vapor is input from the west, south, and east boundaries. The water vapor income from the east boundary mainly comes from the low-level east wind. The water vapor income from the west and south boundaries comes from three middle and high-level paths. The "southwest + south" path water vapor transport causes water vapor at the south boundary. The input contribution is significantly greater than the western boundary. The heavy rain in the Tarim Basin should not only pay attention to the Central Asian low pressure, but also pay attention to whether the Central Asian low pressure, the Indian low pressure, and the plateau vortex coexist and affect the atmospheric circulation field.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-08-18
  • 最后修改日期:2022-04-20
  • 录用日期:2022-08-01
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