双月刊

ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

2020/2021年冬季三次全国型强冷空气过程及其低频特征
作者:
作者单位:

1.国家气候中心;2.国家气候中心,气候研究开放实验室;3.云南省气候中心

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基金项目:

国家自然科学基金(U1902209,41776039)


Three Cold Surges in China during the Winter of 2020/2021 and Their Low-frequency Features
Author:
Affiliation:

1.Laboratory of Climate Studies,National Climate Center,CMA;2.Yunnan Climate Center;3.National Climate Center,CMA

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    摘要:

    2020/2021年冬季,东亚地区的强冷空气过程多次爆发,持续强降温及伴随的大风、雨雪天气给人民生产生活造成了严重影响。利用日尺度大气环流格点数据和地面气温站点资料,从次季节变化角度揭示了西伯利亚高压的低频振荡特征及对三次全国型强冷空气过程(2020年12月13-15日、2020年12月29日-2021年1月1日、2021年1月6-8日)的重要影响。研究显示,2020/2021年冬季,西伯利亚高压和中国东部地区气温变化都表现出明显的准双周(10-30 d)和30-60 d低频振荡特征,并且低频特征在冬季前期明显强于冬季后期。但是,三次强冷空气过程中低频振荡的特征各不相同,其中,第一次过程中准双周振荡有显著的正贡献,但30-60 d低频振荡为负贡献;而第二次和第三次过程兼有准双周和30-60 d低频振荡的共同作用,尤其第三次过程处于这两个低频波段的最强时期,这也导致第三次冷空气过程的降温幅度最大、低温影响范围最广,西伯利亚高压也发展最强。10-30 d低频西伯利亚高压的增强超前一候(5天)左右对冷空气爆发和中国东部地区强降温均有显著的负相关关系,其中与冷空气爆发的关系超前1-2天最显著,与中国东部地区低温的关系超前2-3天最为显著。

    Abstract:

    During the winter of 2020/2021, strong cold air processes broke out frequently in East Asia, which caused persistently low temperature, strong wind, heavy snow and rainfall, as well as serious impacts on people’s production and life in China. Using daily atmospheric circulation grid data and station temperature data, this paper revealed the low-frequency characteristics of the Siberian High (SH) and its significant impact on the three strong cold surges in China (Dec 13-15 2020, Dec 29 2020-Jan 1 2021, and Jan 6-8 2021). Both the SH and the temperature in eastern China showed significant quasi-biweekly (10-30d) and 30-60d low-frequency oscillation (LFO) features, which were stronger in the earlier winter than in the later winter of 2020/2021. However, the specific LFO features were totally different among three cold surges. In the first one, the quasi-biweekly oscillation had a significant positive contribution, while the 30-60d LFO showed a negative contribution. However, the second and third cold surges had a combined effect of quasi-biweekly and 30-60d LFO. In particular, the third one was in the strongest period of the above two LFO waves, which also lead to the largest cooling range and the widest range of low temperature in China, and the strongest development of SH. The enhancement of the quasi-biweekly SH had a significant impact on the cold air outbreak and the strong cooling in eastern China by about one pentad (5 days) ahead, with its impact on the cold air outbreak (low temperature in eastern China) the most significant by 1-2 (2-3) days earlier.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-11-25
  • 最后修改日期:2022-04-05
  • 录用日期:2022-04-25
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-05-09
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