双月刊

ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

2000~2019年东北冷涡统计特征及其影响期间的降水分布
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中国科学院大气物理研究所

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Statistical characteristics of the Northeast China Cold Vortex and its impact on precipitation distribution from 2000 to 2019
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Key Laboratory of Cloud–Precipitation Physics and Severe Storms,Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences

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    摘要:

    东北冷涡是影响我国东北地区天气和气候的重要环流系统。本文在前人研究工作基础上,构建了本文的东北冷涡识别与追踪方法。利用2000~2019年NCEP/NCAR再分析资料,对东北冷涡开展客观识别与追踪,进而分析东北冷涡的时空分布特征、持续时间、强度和尺度等,最后利用国家地面气象站小时降水观测数据,探讨了东北冷涡影响期间东北区域的暖季降水分布特征。东北区域内,东北冷涡频数和影响天数无明显长期变化趋势,但存在明显的年际变化和月际变化,东北冷涡更易发生在暖季;东北冷涡的持续时间主要集中在48~72小时,半径尺度范围主要分布在600~1200 km,冷季平均尺度大于暖季,冷季冷涡中心强度也强于暖季;东北冷涡中心活动高频区沿45~55°N呈东-西走向带状分布;东北冷涡影响期间的暖季降水量占比基本在20%以上,不同强度降水档(0.1~5 mm/h,5~10 mm/h,10~20 mm/h和≥20 mm/h)中,占比空间分布不同,强降水局地性特征显著;东北冷涡影响期间的暴雨日降水量占比最大可超过70%。

    Abstract:

    The Northeast China Cold Vortex (NCCV) is a significant circulation system affecting the weather and climate in the northeastern China (NEC). On the basis of previous studies, the identification and tracking method of NCCVs is constructed in this study. 2000-2019 NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data are used to objectively identify and track NCCVs. On this basis, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics, duration, intensity and size of NCCVs are analyzed, and the relationship between NCCVs and precipitation in the warm season in the NEC are also discussed by using the hourly precipitation observation data offered by 216 national automatic weather stations (AWSs). NCCVs in the NEC have no obvious long-time trend, but have a considerable interannual variability and a clear seasonal variation, which are more likely to occur in the warm season. The duration of NCCVs is generally 48-72 hours and the size range mainly distributes in 600-1200 km. The mean size and intensity of NCCVs in the cold season are both larger than those in the warm season. The high occurrence of NCCVs presents an east-west zonal distribution along the latitude of 45-55°N. The contribution of NCCVs to the precipitation in the warm season in NEC is generally over 20%. For the precipitation in four classes of 0.1-5 mm/h, 5-10 mm/h, 10-20 mm/h and ≥20 mm/h, the spatial distributions of precipitation proportion are different and the local characteristic of heavy precipitation is remarkable. The maximum contribution of NCCVs to the rainstorm can reach more than 70%.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-12-03
  • 最后修改日期:2022-03-16
  • 录用日期:2022-06-10
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-06-15
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