双月刊

ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

2021年河南省一次罕见暴雨过程的降水特征及成因分析
DOI:
作者:
作者单位:

1.中国科学院大气物理研究所;2.河南省气象服务中心;3.厦门大学

作者简介:

通讯作者:

基金项目:

国家重点研发项目; 国家自然科学基金项目


Analysis of precipitation characteristics and causes of a rare rainfall process in Henan province in 2021
Author:
Affiliation:

The Institute of Atmospheric Physics

Fund Project:

  • 摘要
  • |
  • 图/表
  • |
  • 访问统计
  • |
  • 参考文献
  • |
  • 相似文献
  • |
  • 引证文献
  • |
  • 资源附件
    摘要:

    基于河南省119个国家自动站逐小时降水观测资料及欧洲中期天气预报中心逐小时大气再分析资料(ERA-5)对“21·7”河南罕见特大暴雨的降水特征、大气环流和物理量场进行了较为详细的分析,并对比了河南历史上伴有极端短时强降水天气的三次暴雨过程。结果表明:(1)“21·7”极端强降水过程在一小时最大降水量、三小时最大降水量、六小时最大降水量、一天最大降水量、三天最大降水量和过程累积降水量方面均表现出显著极端性。(2)高层南亚高压与东海附近低涡稳定共存,中层副高稳定偏北偏强,与大陆高压形成对峙,使得天气形势稳定,为河南地区极端强降水的发生提供了背景条件。低层西太副高南侧东风气流与台风“烟花”北侧的东风气流相叠加,使得西太平洋到河南地区形成深厚的水汽通道,继而为河南地区极端强降水提供了充沛的水汽。(3)在“21·7”极端强降水期间,河南地区水汽通量散度值为负且大部分地区的整层可降水量可达100mm,整层水汽十分充沛。涡度和垂直速度场的大值区主要出现在太行山东麓临近地区,与降水大值区相对应。(4)与河南历史上两次暴雨过程“75·8”和“12·8”相比,其相似之处在于台风在北移过程中受到副热带高压的阻挡而停滞少动,从而将源源不断的水汽输送至河南,造成极端降水事件的发生。“21·7”暴雨短时降水量量级大于“12·8”暴雨的可能原因之一是受到西太暖池和印度洋海温暖异常相互叠加的影响,2021年夏季副高相较于气候态和2012年偏北偏强,能够稳定存在于台风北侧,从而为河南暴雨区源源不断输送水汽,最终造成“21·7”暴雨过程中出现破纪录的短时降水量。

    Abstract:

    Based on the hourly precipitation data of 119 national automatic stations in Henan and the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-5, a detailed analysis of the precipitation characteristics, atmospheric circulation and environmental physical quantities was carried out. We also compared three extreme precipitation processes in Henan. The results show that: (1) The "21·7" extreme rainfall is significantly extreme in terms of maximum precipitation in one hour, three hours, six hours, one day, three days, and cumulative precipitation in the process. (2) In 200hpa, South Asian high and the low vortex near the East China Sea coexist steadily. In 500hpa, the subtropical high is stable and northward, and confronts with the continental high. This makes the atmospheric circulation stable and provides background for the occurrence of extreme rainfall in Henan. In 850 hpa, the superimposition of the easterly airflow on the south side of Pacific Subtropical High and on the north side of Typhoon created a deep water vapor channel from the Western Pacific to Henan, providing abundant water vapor. (3) During the "21·7" extreme rainfall period, the water vapor flux divergence was negative and the precipitable water in most region of Henan could reach 100mm, which means the water vapor was abundant. The large value areas of vorticity and vertical velocity appear near the eastern foot of Taihang Mountains, corresponding to the large value areas of precipitation. (4) Compared with two heavy rainfall processes ("75·8" and "12·8") in Henan, the similarity is that the typhoon was blocked by the Subtropical high when move northward and stopped. One possible reason why the "21·7" extreme precipitation is greater is due to the superposition of the warm anomalies of the Western Pacific Pool and the Indian Ocean, which makes the subtropical high is stronger and able to stably exist on the north side of the typhoon, thus resulting in record-breaking short-term precipitation during the "21·7" heavy rainfall.

    参考文献
    相似文献
    引证文献
引用本文
分享
文章指标
  • 点击次数:
  • 下载次数:
  • HTML阅读次数:
  • 引用次数:
历史
  • 收稿日期:2021-12-24
  • 最后修改日期:2022-09-28
  • 录用日期:2022-10-21
  • 在线发布日期:
  • 出版日期: