doi:  10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1709.16288
近30年全球干旱半干旱区的蒸散变化特征

Evapotranspiration Variability over Global Arid and Semi-arid Regions from 1982 to 2011
摘要点击 1245  全文点击 55  投稿时间:2016-12-19  修订日期:2017-07-27
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基金:  公益性行业(气象)科研专项(重大专项)GYHY201506001-1,国家自然科学基金项目41575087、41530532和江苏省气候变化协同创新中心共同资助
中文关键词:  蒸散量 FLUXNET-MTE ERA-Interim 区域对比
英文关键词:  Evapotranspiration, FLUXNET-MTE, ERA-Interim, Regional comparison
        
作者中文名作者英文名单位
张霞Zhang Xia中国科学院大气物理研究所东亚区域气候—环境重点实验室;中国科学院大学
李明星LI Mingxing中国科学院大气物理研究所东亚区域气候—环境重点实验室
马柱国MA Zhuguo中国科学院大气物理研究所东亚区域气候—环境重点实验室
引用:张霞,李明星,马柱国.2018.近30年全球干旱半干旱区的蒸散变化特征[J].大气科学
Citation:Zhang Xia,LI Mingxing,MA Zhuguo.2018.Evapotranspiration Variability over Global Arid and Semi-arid Regions from 1982 to 2011[J].Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese)
中文摘要:
      全球变暖加剧了气候系统能量和水分循环相互作用的变化,水分平衡变化导致极端旱涝事件频发。地表蒸散是能量水分循环的重要过程,是理解气候变化的关键环节。本文基于1982~2011年FLUXNET-MTE观测和ERA-Interim再分析资料,分析了全球干旱半干旱区蒸散的时空变化特征及典型区域的变幅、趋势和季节变化。结果表明:(1)干旱半干旱区多年平均蒸散量小于300 mm。冬季蒸散量最小,夏季最大且变率也最强。1990年代前后,干旱半干旱区蒸散发生了明显的年代际转变,暖季的年代际差异尤为明显。(2)近30年来,东半球干旱半干旱区蒸散量呈增加趋势,西半球呈减小趋势。典型区域来看,南非呈显著增加趋势(25.14 mm/10a),美国西南部呈显著减小趋势(-19.86 mm/10a);萨赫勒、中国北部和澳大利亚呈增加趋势,阿根廷及智利南部呈减小趋势。(3)蒸散变化与温度、降水的变化联系密切,三者具有相似的年循环变化,但三者间相关性在干旱半干旱区具有显著的差异性。
Abstract:
      Global warming has strongly intensified the interactions between energy and water cycles in climate system. The changes in the water balance increase the occurrence of regional floods and droughts. As a key link of energy-water interactions, surface evapotranspiration (ET) is important to understand climate change. This paper focuses on the spatiotemporal variations of ET across global arid and semi-arid regions, especially their regional differences, using the observation (FLUXNET-MTE) and reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data sets during 1982–2011. The results show (1) mean annual ET is less than 300 mm across arid and semi-arid regions. Seasonally, minimum ET appear in winter, but both maximum values and variability in summer. A decadal negative-to-positive transformation happened in 1990s, particularly apparent in warm seasons. (2) At hemispheric scale, ET variations show positive trends in the eastern hemisphere, but opposite trends in the western hemisphere in latest 30 years. Regarding typical regions, South Africa significantly increases by 25.14 mm/10a, while southwest U.S. significantly decreases by 19.86 mm/10a (both at the level of 99%). Moreover, ET weakly increases in Sahel, northern China and Australia, but slightly decreases in southern Argentina and Chile. (3) The ET variability is coupled with variations of temperature and precipitation, with similar annual cycles. However, the spatial patterns of correlation between ET and temperature/precipitation are heterogeneous across the arid and semi-arid regions.
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