ISSN 1006-9895

CN 11-1768/O4

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  • 1  The definition and detection of the abrupt climatic change
    Fu Conghin Wang Qiang
    1992, 16(4):482-493. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1992.04.11
    [Abstract](12157) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6645)
    2  Analyses of the Causes of Severe Drought Occurring in Southwest China from the Fall of 2009 to the Spring of 2010
    HUANG Ronghui LIU Yong WANG Lin WANG Lei
    2012, 36(3):443-457. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2011.11101
    [Abstract](10149) [HTML](0) [PDF 7.74 M](4785)
    A severe drought occurred in Southwest China from the fall of 2009 to the spring of 2010. Either its persistent time and area or decreased amount of rainfall were less observed during the last 50 years. Thus, in this paper, the occurring causes of this drought are analyzed by using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and SST data from the impacts of thermal anomalies in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) and the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) on the atmospheric circulation over the TWP and South Asia. The results show that during the period from the fall of 2009 to the spring of 2010, both the TWP and the TIO were in a warming state. Under the common thermal effect of both oceans, a strong anticyclonic anomalous circulation appeared in the lower troposphere over the TWP and the South China Sea, which caused not only the strengthening of the southwest flow anomaly, but also the appearance of a low trough anomaly over South China and Central China. In this case, the northwest flow anomaly and descending flow anomaly behind the trough controlled the eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, and water vapor was difficultly transported from the Bay of Bengal into the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (Yun-Gui Plateau in short). Thus, less rainfall for a long time was caused in this region. Moreover, the analysis results also show that the circulation anomaly over the mid- and high latitudes had an important impact on the severe drought. Since the polar wave guide of quasi-stationary planetary wave propagations over the high latitudes was stronger, but the low-latitude wave guide was weaker from the fall of 2009 to the spring of 2010, which led to convergence and divergence of the wave E-P fluxes for quasi-stationary planetary waves in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere over the region about 60°N and in the middle and upper troposphere over the region about 35°N, respectively. Thus, the zonal mean wind was weakened in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere over the region about 60°N, but it was strengthened in the upper troposphere over the region about 35°N. This caused an obviously negative phase of the AO (Arctic Oscillation) and brought strong winter monsoon and eastward tracks of cold waves into East Asia, which led to a weakening of cold air arriving in Southwest China. Thereby, the persistent severe drought occurred in Southwest China.
    3  Assessing the Quality of APHRODITE High-Resolution Daily Precipitation Dataset over Contiguous China
    HAN Zhenyu ZHOU Tianjun
    2012, 36(2):361-373. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2011.11043
    [Abstract](9626) [HTML](0) [PDF 12.25 M](4843)
    A daily gridded precipitation dataset (APHRO) for Asia was created by the Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE) project in Japan. The resolution of this dataset is 0.25°×0.25°, and the length is from 1951 to 2007. This study aims to assess the quality of the APHRO rainfall in contiguous China from the perspective of climatological mean, rainfall classes, and long-term trend. Daily rainfall records observed by 559 rain gauges are used for the comparison. The results are as follows: (1) For the mean states, the APHRO shows similar distribution of precipitation amount to station data, and can accurately characterize the seasonal migration of rain-belt. However, compared with station data, this dataset underestimates precipitation intensity, but overestimates precipitation frequency.(2) For the distribution of different classes of precipitation, annual mean precipitation amount for heavy rainfall derived from the APHRO data is lower, while the amounts for light and moderate rainfall are higher than the station data.(3) The trends of precipitation amount in China during 1956-2005 derived from two dataset are identical, the trends of precipitation frequency are also highly consistent, and both show an “increase in the west but decrease in the east” pattern. A large difference between the two datasets is found in the spatial pattern of precipitation intensity trends. The precipitation intensity derived from station data shows an increasing trend throughout the Chinese mainland in the past 50 years; the APHRO data exhibit a similar trend in the southeastern coastal region and northwestern China, but a different pattern in northern China, northeastern China, and Jianghuai region. In addition, analysis on the seasonality of interdecadal variability indicates that the characteristics of “southern China food and northern China drought” and “Jiangnan late spring drought” derived from the APHRO data are different from those derived from station data. The APHRO data tend to underestimate the trends.
    4  Influence of heat source anomaly over the western tropical Pacific on the subtropical high over East Asia and its physical mechanism
    Huang Ronghui Li Weijing
    1988, 12(s1):107-116. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1988.t1.08
    [Abstract](9455) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](419)
    5  An Overview of Recent Studies on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Environment in LAPC
    ZHANG Meigen HU Fei ZOU Han et al
    2008, 32(4):923-934. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2008.04.18
    [Abstract](9181) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.90 M](19329)
    总结了近5年来中国科学院大气物理研究所大气边界层物理和大气化学国家重点实验室(LAPC)在第二代超声风速温度仪研制、城市边界层研究、复杂地形大气边界层探测与数值模拟、湍流机理研究、大气污染模式发展与应用等领域的主要进展,其中,第二代超声风速温度仪的野外对比测试结果表明其主要性能完全达到了国际先进水平;北京城市化发展使得北京325 m气象塔周边近地面流场已经具备了典型城市粗糙下垫面的流场特征,近地面夏季平均风速呈现非常明显的逐年递减趋势;北京沙尘暴大风时期湍流运动主要是小尺度湍涡运动,而大风的概率分布偏离高斯分布,风速较大的一侧概率分布呈指数迅速衰减,大风中风速很大的部分具有分形特征;珠穆朗玛峰北坡地区两次综合强化探测实验是迄今为止在青藏高原大型山地中实施的针对山地环流和物质/能量交换最为全面和连续的大气过程探测实验;白洋淀地区的观测研究表明,非均匀边界层具有一般边界层不具备的特点,无论是边界层结构还是湍流输送方面,水、陆边界层之间存在一定的差异,凸显其地表非均匀性的作用;为了解决不同尺度、不同类型的大气污染问题和实际应用,研制或发展完善了多套大气污染模式系统,包括全球大气化学模式、区域大气污染数值模式、城市大气污染数值模式和微小尺度(如街区尺度)范围内污染物输送扩散模式。
    6  Interdecadal Variation of the Leading Modes of Summertime Precipitation Anomalies over Eastern China and Its Association with Water Vapor Transport over East Asia
    HUANG Ronghui CHEN Jilong LIU Yong
    2011, 35(4):589-606. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2011.04.01
    [Abstract](8898) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.09 M](6058)
    Interdecadal variation of the leading modes of summertime precipitation anomalies in the monsoon regions of eastern China and its association with the spatio-temporal variations of summertime water vapor transport fluxes over East Asia are analyzed by using the daily data of the ERA-40 reanalysis and precipitation data at 516 observational stations of China for 1958-2000 and the EOF analysis method. The analysis results show that there are two leading modes in the spatio-temporal variations of summertime precipitation anomalies over the monsoon region of eastern China: The first leading mode exhibits not only a characteristic of obvious interannual variation with a quasi-biennial oscillation, but also a feature of interdecadal variability, and its spatial distribution is of a meridional tripole pattern. And the second leading mode exhibits a characteristic of obvious interdecadal variability, and its spatial distribution is of a meridional dipole pattern. This shows that these two leading modes have a significant interdecadal variability. During the period of 1958-1977, the distribution of summertime precipitation anomalies in eastern China exhibited a “+-+” meridional tripole pattern from the south to the north, and the distribution of precipitation anomalies for 1978-1992 showed a “-+-” meridional tripole pattern in the region, which was opposite to that for 1958-1977, but during the period of 1993-1998, since the role of the second leading mode in summertime precipitation anomalies in eastern China was intensified, the distribution of summertime precipitation in this region showed a combination of “+-+” meridional tripole pattern and “+-” meridional pattern, which caused the increase of summertime precipitation in South China. Moreover, the analysis results also show that the interdecadal variation of these two leading modes is closely associated with the spatio-temporal variations of summertime water vapor transport fluxes over East Asia, which is associated not only with the interdecadal variation of the EAP pattern teleconnection-like wave-train distribution of summertime water vapor transport flux anomalies over East Asia and the western North Pacific, but also with the interdecadal variation of the EU pattern teleconnection-like wave-train distribution of summertime waver vapor transport flux anomalies in the westerly zone over middle and high latitudes of Eurasia.
    7  Recent Progress of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Environment Research in IAP
    Hu Fei Hong Zhongxiang Lei Xiaoen
    2003, 27(4):712-728. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2003.04.18
    [Abstract](8597) [HTML](0) [PDF 736.82 K](9449)
    8  Projection and Evaluation of the Precipitation Extremes Indices over China Based on Seven IPCC AR4 Coupled Climate Models
    JIANG Zhihong CHEN Weilin SONG Jie et al
    2009, 33(1):109-120. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2009.01.10
    [Abstract](8263) [HTML](0) [PDF 806.32 K](5115)
    Climatology of the observed daily precipitation extreme indices (SDII, simple daily intensity index; CDD, the maximum number of consecutive dry days; R10, number of days with precipitation greater than 10 mm; R5d, maximum 5-day precipitation total; R95t, fraction of total precipitation due to events exceeding the 95th percentile of the climatological distribution for wet day amounts) at 550 stations in China during 1961-2000 is used to evaluate the simulation ability of 7 IPCC AR4 Coupled Climate Models, the projected change of the precipitation extreme indices over China under IPCC SRES A2、A1B and B1 is also studied. The results show that the state-of-the-art IPCC AR4 models can simulate the spatial distributions and the linear trends of precipitation extremes well. The multi-model ensemble (MME) shows the best skill, but both the MME and single model fail to simulate the interannual variability and have large biases, such as there are excessive extreme precipitation over the eastern side of the Tibetan Plateau while in the monsoon regions the modeled intensity of precipitation extremes is lower than the observation. In the 21st century the precipitation will become more “extreme”, there would be an overall increasing trend in extreme precipitation events over most of China under a warming environment, and the change scope is scaled to the emissions scenarios.
    9  Analyses on the Spatial Distribution of Aerosol Optical Depth over China in Recent 30 Years
    Luo Yunfeng Lu Daren Zhou Xiuji Li Weiliang
    2002, 26(6):721-730. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2002.06.01
    [Abstract](7918) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](4954)
    利用北京等46个甲种日射站1961~1990年逐日太阳直接辐射日总量和日照时数等资料,反演了30年来各站逐年、逐月0.75μm大气气溶胶光学厚度(Aerosol OpticalDepth,简称AOD)平均值,分析了我国大气气溶胶光学厚度的年、季空间分布特征和年代际之间的变化.结果表明:我国大气气溶胶光学厚度的多年平均分布具有典型的地理特征,除个别大城市外,100°E以东,AOD以四川盆地为大值中心向四周减少;100°E以西,南疆盆地为另一个相对大值中心.气溶胶光学厚度的各季分布具有各自的特征.20世纪60年代,我国大气气溶胶光学厚度的平均分布特征是以四川盆地和南疆盆地为两个大值中心向四周减少;70年代,绝大多数地区AOD值增加,其中从四川盆地到长江中下游地区以及华南沿海等地,AOD增加较为明显,AOD的分布和60年代较相似;到80年代,我国大范围地区AOD继续呈增加趋势,其中长江中下游地区,AOD增加相当明显,气溶胶光学厚度的分布发生了一定的变化.
    10  Advances in Studies of Pacific Decadal Oscillation
    YANG Xiu-Qun ZHU Yi-Min XIE Qian REN Xue-Juan XU Gui-Yu
    2004, 28(6):979-992. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2004.06.15
    [Abstract](7860) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.32 M](9667)
    11  Research on the Earth System Dynamic Model and Some Related Numerical Simulations
    ZENG Qingcun ZHOU Guangqing PU Yifen et al
    2008, 32(4):653-690. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2008.04.01
    [Abstract](7856) [HTML](0) [PDF 13.53 M](13261)
    将地球上大气、海洋、地理环境和生态各圈看成一个有机的整体进行研究,并统一协调全球气候、生态与环境变化的有关研究(如WCRP、IGBP、IHDP、DIVERSITAS及IPCC、Global Change等),现称为地球系统动力学。它是新兴的学科,其核心之一就是要建立地球系统动力学理论模式并作模拟研究。本文主要概述了我国地球系统动力学模式研制和发展的有关现状及近年来特别是中国科学院“三期创新”资源和海洋科技创新基地重要方向项目群“地球系统动力学模式研究”启动前后所取得的阶段性成果及主要进展,指出了我国地球系统动力学模式发展应重点研究和解决的科学问题及其主要特色,其中有不少结果是新颖的和具有我国特点的。
    12  Characteristics of the Water Vapor Transport in East Asian Monsoon Region and Its Difference from that in South Asian Monsoon Region in Summer
    Huang Ronghui Zhang Zhenzhou Huang Gang Ren Baohua
    1998, 22(4):460-469. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1998.04.08
    [Abstract](7690) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](4523)
    13  The Seasonal March of the North Pacific Oscillation and Its Association with the Interannual Variations of China's Climate in Boreal Winter and Spring
    Wang Lin Chen Wen Fong Soikun et al
    2011, 35(3):393-402. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2011.03.01
    [Abstract](7511) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.18 M](5059)
    Based on the monthly mean NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset and the observed surface air temperature and precipitation from 160 China stations, the seasonal march of the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and its association with the interannual variations of China's climate in boreal winter and spring are investigated in this paper. By employing the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis method, the NPO is identified as the second EOF mode of the monthly mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP) field over the North Pacific. The seasonal mean NPO indices are then defined as the average of the monthly mean indices for each season. Wavelet analysis reveals that the significant periods of the NPO indices are below 8 years for all the four seasons, indicating strong interannual variability and weak interdecadal variability of the NPO. Besides, the winter mean NPO index experiences significant linear trend towards its positive polarity. For all the seasons, NPO is featured with a large-scale meridional dipole in the SLP field over the North Pacific region and resembles the western Pacific pattern in the middle troposphere. The two surface centers are located around Aleutian Islands and the northwest of Hawaii, respectively. Their positions vary a little with season. Comparatively the south center experiences more zonal movement and the north center bears more meridional movement. Vertically the NPO is featured with an equivalent barotropic structure in summer and tilts a little westward with height for the rest three seasons. To put the NPO jet fluctuation in perspective, the positive phase of NPO is characterized by a northward shift and downstream extension of the East Asian jet stream especially in the jet exit region. The NPO variability is influential for the China's climate. Regression analysis indicate that during boreal winter the positive phase of NPO favors significant southerly anomalies along the coasts of East Asia, which may bring warm and moisture air from the south. Consequently, significant warming is observed over most areas of eastern China as well as the eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau. Meanwhile, more precipitation is observed over southeastern China, the Huaihe River valley, and several stations of northwestern China. During boreal spring, the influence of NPO is mainly confined to North China. More precipitation and weak cooling can be observed over this region in the positive phase of NPO. Such changes may be accounted for by the NPO-associated anomalous low-level wind convergence and the secondary circulation around the entrance of East Asian jet stream. In addition to the simultaneous influences, it is further found that the wintertime NPO is closely related to the temperature and precipitation of the following spring. If the NPO phase is positive in the preceding winter, significant warming will be observed over northern China and southwestern China in the following spring. Meanwhile, about 20% more-than-normal precipitation will be observed over southwestern China. Therefore, the wintertime NPO may act as a potential predictor for the climate of the following spring in China.
    14  Separation of Truncation Error and Round-off Error in the Numerical Integration and Its Validation
    Wang Pengfei Huang Ronghui Li Jianping
    2011, 35(3):403-410. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2011.03.02
    [Abstract](7460) [HTML](0) [PDF 403.54 K](4469)
    The authors propose a method to separate the truncation error and the round-off error from the numerical solution. The analytical truncation error formulas of a partial differential equation are given for the upstream scheme and the centered difference scheme, respectively. The reference solution method is then introduced to separate these two types of errors for more general equations. A scheme based on the reference solution is used to obtain the approximate truncation error. Comparing the results for the upstream scheme and the centered difference scheme, the authors find that:1) the approximate truncation error is highly consistent with the analytical one. 2) The truncation errors of 1-D wave equations for the two schemes both show wavy periodicities with amplitudes being related to the parameters of computation. 3) The analytical error is suitable for the analysis of any slice of t, while the approximate one is only suitable for the analysis of a certain time range. However, the approximate error can be more easily obtained for general differential equations without a complex theoretical deduction.
    15  A Study on the Relationships between ENSO Cycle and Rainfalls during Summer and Winter in Eastern China
    Jin Zuhui Tao Shiyan
    1999, 23(6):663-672. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1999.06.03
    [Abstract](7458) [HTML](0) [PDF 413.03 K](4924)
    用中国160个站月平均降水量和赤道东太平洋Ni?o 3区海温资料研究了ENSO循环过程的不同位相与中国降水的关系。结果显示ENSO循环对中国冬、夏季降水丰或欠及时空分布有密切关系,ENSO发展年的夏季我国东部地区以雨量偏少为主,一些地区可偏少3~5成,多雨带位于江淮之间;ENSO恢复年的夏季长江及江南地区雨量偏多,其南北两边偏少;反ENSO年的夏季长江—黄河之间及东南部雨量偏少,其北边和西南正常偏多;在ENSO的准常态年夏季,长江以北为正偏差,江南除少部分地区外降水分布接近正常。还发现ENSO暖位相与中国冬季降水也有很好关系。由于本文用准常态年降水平均值代替通常的气候平均值,因而有利于更好地揭示ENSO与中国气候变化的关系。
    16  Recent Progresses in Studies of the Temporal-Spatial Variations of the East Asian Monsoon System and Their Impacts on Climate Anomalies in China
    HUANG Ronghui GU Lei CHEN Jilong et al
    2008, 32(4):691-719. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2008.04.02
    [Abstract](7395) [HTML](0) [PDF 8.94 M](4939)
    17  The Instability of the Interannual Relationship between ENSO and the Summer Rainfall in China
    Zong Haifeng Chen Lieting Zhang Qingyun
    2010, 34(1):184-192. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2010.01.17
    [Abstract](7297) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.75 M](3870)
    Based on the monthly rainfall of 160 stations over China and the sea surface temperature data in the Niño 3 region, the instability of interannual relationship between summer rainfall in China (SRC) and pre-winter sea surface temperature (WSST) in the Niño 3 region is studied by using sliding correlation, composition etc. It shows that the long-term variation of interannual relationship between SRC and WSST in the Niño3 region has obvious regionality and is more instable in northeastern and northwestern China than in eastern China. At the same time, it has a significant stage characteristic. The period from 1951-2007 can be separated into 1962-1977, 1978-1992, 1993 to present, according to the sliding correlation coefficients. Each stage has about sixteen years in length. Every turning from one stage to another is very short and is characterized by abrupt change. There are three obvious abrupt changes in the last 50 years, such as in the early 1960s, in the late 1970s, and in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Before and after the abrupt change, the correlation sign and intensity have obvious differences in some regions. It also shows that the influences of El Niño events in different stages have different features. There are two rainbelts during 1962-1977: one was located in North China, Northeast China Plain, and eastern Inner Mongolia, and the other was located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River; there was less rainfall in the Qingling-Daba Mountains and the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valley. During 1978-1992, there was only one rainbelt located in the Qinling-Daba Mountains area and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there was less rainfall in the Yellow River and Huaihe River valley, and North China to the south of Northeast China. And in the present stage (1993 to present), the spatial distribution of rainbelts is similar to that during 1962-1977, there are also two rainbelts located in southern China and northern China respectively. But the north rainbelt moves southward to the Sichuan Province, Chongqing, the Yellow River and Huaihe River valley, the lower reaches of the Yellow River, and Northeast China Plain; there is less rainfall in northern Hubei Province and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River; the feature of rainfall distribution is that there is more rainfall in northern China while less rainfall in southern China. So, not only the mean interannual relations between SRC and SST in the Niño 3 region but also their instabilities must be considered in the forecasting of flood season precipitation by using ENSO events.
    18  The Impact of the Tibetan Plateau Warming on the East Asian Summer Monsoon—A Study of Numerical Simulation
    BAO Qing Bin WANG LIU Yimin et al
    2008, 32(5):997-1005. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2008.05.01
    [Abstract](7285) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.24 M](4190)
    East Asian monsoon precipitation and circulation have experienced an interdecadal change in the last 50 years that was concurrent with the changes in global SST and recent global warming. What gives rise to this long term change has been an outstanding issue. One possible cause is the change over the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the possible impact of the Tibetan Plateau surface conditions on the downstream East Asian monsoon, a suite of sensitivity experiments were performed with Hamburgs atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM). The land surface albedo was changed in two sets of sensitivity tests so that the Tibetan Plateau land surface temperature was changed accordingly.  The results show that a warmer condition over the Tibetan Plateau tends to enhance the upper tropospheric South Asia high and the westerly jet stream to its north and the Indian monsoon to its south, meanwhile the moisture transport toward East Asia increases. The changes in the precipitation pattern are featured by increasing rainfall over northwestern India and Meiyu and decreasing rainfall in the regions under the control of Pacific subtropical high and the Bay of Bengal.  Preliminary diagnostic analysis suggests that the plateau warming has initially increased sensible heating and convective heating locally, which then enhanced the low-level southwest monsoon transport toward down stream of the plateau, resulting in increased precipitation and latent heat release in eastern China. The changes in the overall diabatic heating strengthen the upper-tropospheric South Asia high and downstream subtropical trough. This result may have meaningful implications for understanding the interdecadal change and future change of the East Asian summer monsoon.
    19  Atmospheric Water Vapor Transport and Corresponding Typical Anomalous Spring Rainfall Patterns in China
    ZHANG Jie ZHOU Tianjun YU Rucong et al
    2009, 33(1):121-134. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2009.01.11
    [Abstract](7261) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.64 M](7562)
    The atmospheric water vapor transports associated with typical anomalous spring rainfall patterns have been investigated using NCEP/NCAR, ERA40 monthly mean reanalysis data and precipitation data of 160 stations in China during 1951-1999. Results show that origins of water vapor supply related to anomalous rainfall patterns are different from the climate mean situation. In anomalous pattern 1, with a heavier rainbelt along the South China coast, the main moisture comes from the Philippine Sea and the adjacent South China Sea. The background large-scale circulation changes include the intensification of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and the southwest shift of the East Asian jet stream (EAJS). In anomalous pattern 2, with a main rainbelt along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the origins of water vapor supply contain the western tropical Pacific and the tropical Indian Ocean. Both the WPSH and the EAJS move to the north of their normal position. In anomalous pattern 3, a rainy region is located in the Huaihe River valley. The moisture originates from the northwestern Pacific. The 500-hPa anticyclone anomaly moves to northeastern China and the EAJS is weaker than its normal condition. Although water vapor transport along the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau is one of the main branches in the climate mean pattern, none of the typical water vapor transport related to typical anomalous rainfall reflects this water vapor flow.
    20  Simulation of snowflake by cellular automata
    Liu Shida Zhang Ziguo
    1989, 13(2):193-198. DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1989.02.08
    [Abstract](7225) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](3755)
    雪花是自然界的增长现象,它具有复杂的树枝状形态。我们利用细胞自动机模型在计算机上模拟出许多种类的雪花图象,反映出实际雪花生长的一些物理过程。 “奇偶规则”考虑到水汽冻结时要释放大量潜热这个物理特点,“限制规则”和“优先规则”考虑到水汽扩散到冰晶表面要选择不同的着陆位置这个物理特点。 所有模拟出的雪花和实际观测到的雪花非常相似,且具有分数维的形式。 看来,细胞自动机是模拟像雪花那样在耗散非线性动力系统中所出现的复杂形态的有力工具。