利用2008～2012年太原常规地面气象观测资料、高空探测资料和大气污染物观测资料，对主要天气形势、典型气象要素以及空气污染状况下灰霾天气特征及形成机制进行了综合分析。结果表明：1）太原地区灰霾出现频率存在明显的季节变化，冬半年灰霾出现天数占全年的65.7%；一天中 08：00（北京时间，下同）至13：00发生灰霾的频率较高。2）霾日静风频率较高，主导风向为偏东南风；重度灰霾天气出现时相对湿度较高。3）霾日的大气稳定度主要表现为稳定类；霾日平均混合层高度比非霾日低约 100 m；08：00逆温出现次数高于20：00，霾时平均逆温强度和厚度高于非霾时。4）高压类型天气形势对灰霾的产生有重要影响，低压天气形势下较少出现灰霾天气。5）可吸入颗粒物、SO2和NO2浓度在非霾日比霾日分别下降32.6%、48.6%、21.7%；随着灰霾等级的增加，SO2和可吸入颗粒物的浓度有显著的增加。6）灰霾天气下到达地面的太阳辐射强度明显减弱，日照时数明显减少。
Based on routine surface meteorological data, upper air sounding data, and atmospheric pollutant observation data collected from 2008 to 2012 in Taiyuan, haze characteristics and its formation mechanism were analyzed under the main synoptic situations, typical meteorological elements, and air pollution. The results show that: 1) The frequency of haze occurrence has obvious seasonal and hourly variations with a high probability in the winter half of the year (65.7%) and during the day from 0800 LST to 1300 LST. 2) The frequency of the static wind is high, and southeast winds prevail on haze days. Heavy haze occurs under higher relative humidity conditions. 3) Stable stratification plays a leading role in atmospheric stability on haze days. The mixed layer is approximately 100 m lower on haze days than on no-haze days. The frequency of inversion conditions at 0800 LST is higher than at 2000 LST. Both the average inversion strength and thickness on haze days are higher than on no-haze days. 4) The high pressure weather situation has a significant effect on haze, and the cyclone weather situation is less likely to give rise to haze. 5) The concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 decrease by 32.6%, 48.6%, and 21.7%, respectively, on no-haze days compared with haze days. The concentration of particles and SO2 significantly increase with higher haze levels. 6) The surface solar radiation intensity is weak and sunshine duration is less on haze days.
李艳红,赵彩萍,荆肖军,郭雪梅,周晋红,李瑞萍.2014.太原地区灰霾天气特征及影响因子分析[J].气候与环境研究,19(2):200-208. LI Yanhong, ZHAO Caiping, JING Xiaojun, GUO Xuemei, ZHOU Jinhong, LI Ruiping.2014. Characteristics of Dust Haze in Taiyuan and Its Causative Factors[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research (in Chinese],19(2):200-208.复制