珠江三角洲地区是我国气溶胶污染较严重的地区之一，也是国内较早开展灰霾天气研究的地区，从灰霾标准、科学概念、长期变化趋势、细粒子污染本质、水平输送和垂直扩散能力以及气溶胶的光学特性和物理化学特性方面进行了研究。结果表明，近年来珠江三角洲地区的气溶胶污染日趋严重，气溶胶云一年四季都出现，且长期稳定存在，重污染区位于珠江口以西的珠江三角洲西侧。灰霾天气主要出现在10月至次年4月。灰霾导致能见度恶化。自20世纪80年代初开始，该地区的能见度急剧恶化，灰霾天气显著增加，其中有3次大的波动，分别代表珠江三角洲经济发展相伴随的粗颗粒气溶胶污染、硫酸盐+粗颗粒气溶胶污染、光化学过程的细粒子+硫酸盐和粗颗粒气溶胶的复合污染时期。雾和轻雾造成的低能见度的长期变化趋势，没有由于人类活动影响或经济发展影响带来的趋势性变化，其波动主要反映了气候波动固有的年际和年代际变化。珠江三角洲能见度的恶化主要与细粒子关系比较大，PM10有一半年份的年均值超过国家二级标准的年均值浓度限值（70 μg m-3），而细颗粒物（即PM2.5）各年都超过国家二级标准的年均值限值（35 μg m-3），尤其是有些年份年均值浓度超过标准限值的2倍，细粒子浓度甚高。另外，近年细颗粒物占PM10的比重非常高，可达57%～79%，黑碳气溶胶浓度非常高，月均值达到5.0～9.1 μg m-3，黑碳气溶胶污染严重。和20余年前的资料相比较，细粒子在气溶胶中的比重有明显增加，有机碳和硝酸盐、铵盐的占比增加，而硫酸盐占比略有减少，钙占比明显减少。区域气流停滞区的形成是发生严重灰霾天气的主要气象条件，垂直输送能力不足也是加重灰霾天气的气象条件之一。
Pearl River Delta (PRD) is a region in China with severe aerosol pollution and is the focus of early research on haze weather. These studies on haze weather include haze references, scientific concepts, long-term trends, fine-particle pollution, horizontal transfer and vertical diffusion ability, aerosol physical, chemical characteristics, and aerosol optical properties. The results of this research have indicated that the pollution by aerosols over the PRD has worsened in recent years. Aerosol clouds occur all year round, with an area of heavy pollution located at the western side of the Pearl River Estuary. The haze weather mainly occurs from October to the following April, resulting in visibility deterioration. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the frequency of haze weather over the PRD has obviously increased and visibility has deteriorated dramatically. Three major fluctuations in visibility deterioration have been accompanied by development of the economy, which has caused dust pollution, sulfate and dust pollution, and dust, sulfate, and automobile exhaust pollution caused by photochemical processes, respectively. No indication has been made that the long-term tendency of fog and light fog days is affected by human activities or economical development, and its fluctuation was governed by the intrinsic inter-annual and inter-decadal variations of climate. The deterioration of visibility over the PRD is strongly associated with fine-particle pollution. Half of the monthly mean PM10 observations exceeded the mean critical value of the national second graded standard (70 μg m-3), and all of the mean PM2.5 values exceeded the mean critical value of the U.S. national standard (35 μg m-3). Some mean values of PM2.5 reached nearly twice the standard value, indicating high concentrations of fine particles. The ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 was also very high at approximately 51%－79%. The monthly mean of black carbon concentration was 5.0 μg m-3－9.1 μg m-3. Compared with observations data recorded 20 years ago, the ratio of fine particles has obviously increased. The ratios of organic carbon, nitrate, and ammonium have increased, while that of sulfate slightly decreased and that of calcium obviously decreased. The formation of an airflow stagnation area is the main meteorological condition causing this severe haze weather, which is aggravated by weak vertical transport.
吴兑,廖碧婷,陈慧忠,吴晟.2014.珠江三角洲地区的灰霾天气研究进展[J].气候与环境研究,19(2):248-264. WU Dui, LIAO Biting, CHEN Huizhong, WU Cheng.2014. Advances in Studies of Haze Weather over Pearl River Delta[J]. Climatic and Environmental Research (in Chinese],19(2):248-264.复制